|The Gospel of Godís Grace #13
Grace That Empowers / Faith That Acts
February 1, 1998 / Romans 12:1 ó 13:7
In his commentary on Romans, W.H. Griffith Thomas points to "three pivots" in the epistle: justification (5:1), sanctification (8:1), and consecration (12:1). It is a helpful perspective on the flow of Paulís presentation of the gospel of Godís grace.
Justification is the apostleís term borrowed from the law courts. To be justified is to be acquitted, to have all charges against you dropped, to free you from any potential penalty for your sin. A person who has been justified before God has admitted his guilt (i.e., stopped denying, minimizing, or blaming others) and "thrown himself on the mercy of the court." And what mercy there is in this court! God has devised a plan of salvation that shifted the burden of guilt from a sinner like me to Jesus, had Jesus pay the full penalty due for my sin in his death on a Roman cross, and offers right-standing with God as a free gift to me ó and anyone else like me, whether Jew or Gentile, male or female, living in poverty or a millionaire. All we do is accept acquittal as Godís gift rather than try to fix it ourselves by law-keeping and the accumulated merit of our good works.
The first four chapters of Romans explain how our salvation comes through faith in Jesus and end by citing Abraham as the great example of faith. Chapter 5 opens with a summary of all that has gone before and sets the stage for what follows: "Therefore, since we have been justified through faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we now stand. And we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God" (5:1-2).
Sanctification is the theological term we use to describe the phase of Christian experience that follows on forgiveness, acquittal, right-standing with God by grace through faith. It is the work of God in which a Christian is set apart for the exclusive love, worship, and glory of God. It happens progressively over time as we enter more deeply into the awareness, knowledge, and worship of God. That we have been bought by Christís own blood, that Godís Holy Spirit is working both around and in us, that God is answering our prayers, that he is delivering us from the old ways of thinking and behaving ó all these things drive us to God as the single desire of our hearts and set us apart for him.
So the second "therefore" ó or pivot point ó for the epistle comes in these words: "Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus, because through Christ Jesus the law of the Spirit of life set me free from the law of sin and death" (8:1-2). A life once enslaved to sin has been liberated and set apart for holy, honorable, and God-honoring things. The story of our liberation is grace; the story of our transformed lives is gratitude.
Then consecration is the final pivot point of the epistle. This stage of Christian development is closely connected with sanctification. Consecration points to the devotion and service a believer gives to the Lord. In the Old Testament, priests were consecrated to God by a ritual that involved washing, special garments, and an anointing that initiated them into an office of ministry before the Lord. In the New Testament, every Christian has been washed in Jesusí blood, clothed in the garments of righteousness, and anointed by the Holy Spirit to minister before the Lord. As the priests of God, men and women in Christ offer our daily "living sacrifices" to God as we honor him in using the gifts he has distributed among us.
Thus we discover the third pivot point for the epistle: "Therefore, I urge you brothers, in view of Godís mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God ó this is your spiritual act of worship" (12:1). The final part of the ceremony for a priestís consecration in the Old Testament was to mark him with blood on the tip of his right ear, on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot; when that was done, the priest was "consecrated" to the Lord (Ex. 29:19-21). Marked with Christís own blood, Godís elect in the Son strain to hear and understand Godís words to us. Marked with that precious blood on our hands, we work for God and his kingdom purposes in the world. Marked with that blood on our feet, we walk in the light of Godís own presence in paths of holiness and praise.
The order of these three terms is important: The fact that one has been saved and sanctified unto God becomes his motive for service. He is not serving to be accepted but because he knows he has been accepted already. She is not working for Christ in the hope of being saved but as an expression of grateful worship for a salvation already in hand.
In this section of text, Paul will explain how grace empowers faith to make a new creation of those who belong to God.
The Ground of Newness: "Godís Mercy"
Ready now to make the connection between doctrine and life for any of his readers who have not yet grasped what justification by grace through faith looks like in the real world of daily experience, Paul begins this way: "Therefore, I urge you, brothers, in view of Godís mercy . . ." (12:1a). The basis for Christian transformation and newness of life is not law, will-power, and effort but the mercy of God. No one will be saved by his or her keeping of the law (cf. 3:20). At best, law educates us and imposes the restraint of fear. But the knowledge of the love of God both inspires and emboldens us to live in joyful obedience to him.
For Paul, the Christian faith is all-embracing and eminently practical. Doctrine is never an end in itself but is always the springboard for change. So Romans 12:1ff is his account of the obedient life that results from the experience of Godís grace. Such a transformed life does not flow from fear of what God might someday do to him but out of gratitude for what God has done already. The experience of God transforms everyone who has it. When church members are living poorly, then, it is because they have either had no authentic experience of God or are still in its most early and immature stage.
In the first eleven chapters of this epistle, Paul has progressively chronicled the elements of divine mercy in our redemption (cf. 3:25; 5:1, 10-11; 8:1, 11, 15-16, 38-39). Now it is time for him to "urge" ó not in the sense of pleading for a favor but as an ambassador of Christ setting down the conditions of kingdom citizenship ó the response appropriate to Godís love shown in Jesus.
The Display of Newness: "Living Sacrifices"
Those who have been taken captive by the love of God will affirm the Lordship of Jesus Christ in their lives by heeding the call "to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God ó this is your spiritual act of worship" (12:1b).
In the Old Testament, there are two broad categories of sacrifice that one might offer the Lord under different circumstances. There were atonement sacrifices and celebration sacrifices. Atonement sacrifices were for the covering of sin with blood and the reconciliation of men from God or one another. These sacrifices were offered as a response to sin and guilt. On the other hand, the Law of Moses also made provision for sacrifices of joy. When the crops were reaped, when a child was born, when a great deliverance had occurred ó the people would come before Yahweh to offer gifts of thanksgiving and joy. Christianity has one and only one atonement sacrifice in the offering of Jesus at Golgotha, yet it has perpetual sacrifices of celebration and thanksgiving to the God who has saved us.
While it is true that we offer God our money, energy, and abilities in sacrifice, the fundamental sacrifice we give him is our very bodies. Again, please notice that Paul will have nothing to do with abstract and ethereal religion. Since our bodies are the instruments of all our actions in this world, our bodies must be yielded to God in every particular. One is not a true worshiper who offers only some inner feeling or mystical piety; true worship plays out in tangible actions done in our natural bodily forms.
The natural and perhaps expected thing in many environments is to conform to prevailing standards and customs. How do we say it? "When in Rome, do as the Romans do"? People who have been justified, sanctified, and consecrated to the Lord, however, face a different set of expectations. People who have received Godís grace and who have been transported into the new realm of the Spirit of life will be shaped and molded by their new experience. Wouldnít that be only logical?
Indeed, the word translated "spiritual" here in the New International Version is the Greek term logikos. The word most fundamentally means "rational" or "reasonable." In view of the mercy of God to me, it is only logical or rational that I should give my heart, mind, and body to be shaped by his gracious control. In view of the nature of the personal relationship God has established with me, no mere ceremony or ritual is enough to offer him; he deserves the intelligent and rational surrender of every fiber of my being to him for molding and refurbishment.
So the worship of this text is not primarily that of the church building but what we do to serve the Lord at home, at school, in the office, and in the daily routine of life.
When properly understood, being a Christian is not a matter of church membership and Sunday-morning ritual but the yielding of oneís total life into the shape of grace.
The Daily Experience of Newness: Delight in Godís Will
In terms of the daily experience of Godís grace, here is its general shape: "Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what Godís will is ó his good, pleasing and perfect will" (12:2-3).
When everything about your life is given over to Godís grace, you will begin to notice two things about yourself. They may surprise you. They may even confuse you. But they are actually the evidences that God has become real for you. First, you stop acting like people of the world who still donít know Christ. Second, you begin to notice a gift of good judgment that allows you both to discover and enjoy obeying the will of God. I hope you are already there in your spiritual life, for surely nothing is more painful than the sense of in-between-world of someone who doesnít want to go to hell but isnít quite sure yet that heaven is worth living under the full and absolute Lordship of Jesus.
I had a conversation this week with a man that followed up on almost three years of agonizing struggle. He reached out to me as someone he thought would try to understand what he called his "torment" of trying to be a Christian. He was under a psychiatristís care and taking anti-depressant medication when we first met. I donít think he would have made it without medical help at that point in his struggle, I might add. We talked face to face, by phone, and under any number of circumstances.
Here was his story in a nutshell: He didnít want to go to hell, but he didnít believe he could be happy as a "sold-out Christian" who put everything in his life under Christís authority. I pushed him hard enough to find some of the things he was holding back in his life experiences. Some related to the way he thought he had to do business in a cutthroat market. Some were tied to a sorry relationship with his wife. There were other things that came to light. But I kept pushing him to see that there was really only one issue. If he would ever let his mind be renewed by the Spirit of God, he could see and live all those other situations and relationships differently. If he could accept the gospel of Godís grace, he would get honest with God, himself, and all the people around him.
He had grown up with religious legalism. The only God he knew was a bean-counting, good-works-counting God. The God he had been taught to believe in was a taskmaster who rides his slaves unmercifully. So the life he had lived had been one of sheer torment. He could not admit how broken he was, plead the sufficiency of Jesus alone for his life, and accept the peace of God into his heart. So he was a frustrated, angry, terribly unhappy man. I confess to having given up hope that things would ever change for him.
His work was bringing him to Nashville Wednesday. He called me the day before and said he wanted to meet Myra and me for dinner Tuesday night. Myra said she didnít want to see him. Truth be known, I dreaded it too. Tuesday wouldnít work for me, so I promised to meet him Wednesday afternoon. We got coffee and sat down at a table to catch each other up. It didnít take long for me to discover that I was talking with a new man. In fact, thatís what I told Myra by phone while we were still sitting at the table with our coffee!
He told me about his new attitude toward a job he had hated and a boss he couldnít stand. He is enjoying his work now. And he and the boss he prays for every morning at 5 a.m. and getting along for the first time in years. What were once angry and demeaning memos from a CEO that generated equal exasperation in him, the company president, are now occasional communiques. The tone is respectful. My friendís reaction is to discover what is helpful in those dispatches and to try to implement it. And he has a totally different wife. Oh, same woman! But very different wife. She is happy. And thatís her word to describe herself on a day recently when he was praying for her early one morning and wrote the single word "happy" beside her name as he prayed for God to give her happiness. He came home from the office that very afternoon and asked, "Honey, how was your day?" This was her answer, as he related it to me through tears, "Iíve felt so happy all day long." He vowed to me that that was the first time in years he had heard her use that word to describe herself.
Here is what he said he had discovered and that had changed everything in his life: "Nothing is important in my life but Jesus. Not the job. Not the money. Not the house. Not the . . . well, you name it. Jesus means everything to me!" He meant it. He had discovered the meaning of this verse: "Donít become so well-adjusted to your culture that you fit into it without even thinking. Instead, fix your attention on God. Youíll be changed from the inside out" (12:2, The Message).
The Specifics of the Experience
In 12:3 ó 13:7, Paul identifies the "family values" of the people of God. People who live under the Lordship of Christ have transformed minds, faithful lives, and joyous hearts. And the meaning of membership in the family of God has implications for every aspect of a believerís experience. Rather than read these verses as a string of ethical pearls, I see them as an ever-broader application of the Lordship of Christ to daily life ó to self, to the church, to neighbors, and to the larger culture.
First, grace-empowered people have a healthy self-image that finds its faith-application in humility. "For by the grace given me I say to every one of you: Do not think of yourself more highly than you ought, but rather think of yourself with sober judgment, in accordance with the measure of faith God has given you" (12:3). As with the healing of a demon-possessed man in Jesusí public ministry, anyone who has been delivered from Satanís darkness into Godís light can live "in his right mind" (Mark 5:15). He need not have a sub-par view of himself, no matter what is in his past; God has pardoned his sin, elevated him from slave to son, and promised him a daily supply of sustaining grace for his struggles. But neither is he entitled to a super-par view of himself, for he did not attain his favored status on his merits but by Godís mercy; regardless of his position or privilege in society, he should see himself as a brother to every believer in Christ (cf. Phil. 2:5ff).
Second, grace-empowered people have received a variety of gifts from God that are faith-activated in the unity of Christís church. Every Christian has some gift from the Lord that is intended for the effective functioning of the body of Christ. The non-exhaustive list of verses 4-8 surveys gifts ranging from public teaching to church government, from encouraging to giving. The great danger with this multiplicity of gifts is that certain ones are "spotlight" gifts, while others are "behind-the-scenes" gifts. Those exercised in public might be thought to be more important by virtue of their visibility. When that happens, humility can give way to haughtiness and unity can be undermined by competition. Remember what happened at Corinth! Thus Paul strikes at the notion of superior and inferior gifts ó or people ó by reminding the Roman church of the nature of the human body. Just as our physical bodies have many parts with different functions, so does Christís body have many members with a variety of gifts.
The disunity of the church of Christ across the centuries has been called "the scandal of Christianity" has been a notable obstacle to the faith of many. Attracted by Christ and his teaching, they have been repulsed by the division of his followers.
In a little town in Oklahoma, there are two Church of Christ congregations. They have been at odds with each other for a few decades now about the appropriateness of Sunday School, kitchens in the church building, professional (i.e., paid) church staff, and cooperative child care or evangelism. In 1997, a beloved 84-year-old Christian named Polly died. She and her husband, Morris, had been married for 63 years at the time of her death and had held membership in one congregation for a number of years and in the other for the last several. She had a servant heart and mastered the art of hospitality. She was a good-natured woman who gave wise counsel to younger ones. Everybody loved Polly. But her death created a logistical problem ó and resulted in a powerful work of God. Here is what happened, as told by her son:
Since the attendance at Pollyís funeral would be too great for either the funeral parlor or the smaller congregationís facility, Morris decided to have the funeral at the larger congregation. And this is where a miracle began to occur.
Morris designed the funeral in its entirely. He requested congregational singing led by one of his sons-in-law. He organized a singing group comprised of members of both congregations. He had eulogies and prayers by representatives of both groups. After the services at the cemetery, a large meal was served to the family and friends at the fellowship hall of the larger congregation ó a meal served jointly by both congregations. It was a wonderfully warm and joyous occasion celebrating the life of Polly. It became an agape feat in the best and truest meaning of the word.
Members of the more conservative group were wearing aprons and serving food in a church building right along with those they considered "liberal."
It suddenly struck me: I was in the middle of all this love and acceptance of each other because of the love we shared for this woman. Why couldnít folks get together in love and acceptance on a regular basis because of a shared love for Jesus? Isnít that what the Lordís Supper is all about? A meal celebrating the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus?1
With incredible difference in personalities and backgrounds, the church is called to be one body. With multi-ethnic, multi-colored, and multi-cultural diversity, the church is called to be one body. With a wide variation of gifts and interests, the church is called to be one body. Only the common factor of gratitude to Christ for his amazing grace can bridge all the gaps among believers to bring it about. It is the daily task of obedient faith to actualize such unity.
Third, people empowered by grace have tasted Godís love for them and are able now to walk by faith to obey this command about the way they treat all others: "Love must be sincere" (12:9a). Love is the hallmark of Christian faith and life. And this love is not a frothy sentimentality but a lived-under-Lordship practicality that manifests itself in the nuts and bolts of daily conduct. It is neither artificial nor manipulative, but sincere.
In relation to their fellow-believers, the church, authentic Christian love exhibits the following traits: "Hate what is evil; cling to what is good. Be devoted to one another in brotherly love. Honor one another above yourselves. Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor, serving the lord. Be joyful in hope, patient in affliction, faithful in prayer. Share with Godís people who are in need. Practice hospitality" (9b-13). Perhaps the only "surprising" thing is this catalog of loving traits among the people of God is hatred ó "hate what is evil; cling to what is good." But Christian love is never blind; it is always discerning. Because it has been both witnessed in and engendered by God, it is like his love. It is holy, pure, and devoted to what is good. Thus, in its devotion to the highest well-being of its objects, Christian love hates any evil thing that would diminish or harm them and devotes itself to the good things that honor and nurture them.
In relation to those who are outside the church ó some of whom are enemies to both Christ and his people ó sincere love acts this way:
Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn. Live in harmony with one another. Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position. Do not be conceited.
Do not repay anyone evil for evil. Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everybody. If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone. Do not take revenge, my friends, but leave room for Godís wrath, for it is written: "It is mine to avenge; I will repay," says the Lord. On the contrary:
"If your enemy is hungry, feed him;
if he is thirsty, give him something to drink.
In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head."
Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good" (12:14-21).
One of the most distinctive features of Christian personal ethics is non-retaliation. Christ calls us to turn the other cheek to our detractors rather than strike back (Matt. 5:38-42). He commands his followers: "Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, that you may be sons of your Father in heaven" (Matt. 5:43-48). And here Paul follows up on those teachings from the Sermon on the Mount to say that sincere, Christ-imitating love will show itself in taking the offensive against evil. This "offensive against evil" comes not in the form of personal retaliation but as restraint, peacemaking, and good deeds designed to win over oneís enemy. In this way, love overcomes evil with good ó just as God did at the cross and empty tomb.2
Against the possibility that someone might mistake the personal ethic of Christian love at 12:9-21 for a total account of a believerís rights and obligations within the civil state, Paul immediately broadens his circle once more ó from self to church to non-Christians to oneís larger culture under the state. As an individual, a believer may not redress grievances or retaliate against evil. Does that mean that Christians are committed to pacifism? Was it evil for Christians to fight against Adolf Hitler, Saddam Hussein, or the next aggressor on the world stage? On the other hand, should Christians do whatever their own governments dictate? Jesus taught that his followers would have to honor both church and state when he said, "Give to Caesar what is Caesarís and to God what is Godís" (Mark 12:17). Paul makes the same distinction and specifies some of the details involved in this dual relationship.
Fourth, heavenís grace-empowered people recognize a responsibility to their larger culture and try to exhibit a faith-loyalty to the state by honoring its authority for Christís sake. With the obvious caveat of loyalty to God above Caesar, Christians obey the laws and honor the leaders of civil governments. Only when obedience to the civil authority would result in disobedience to God are we permitted to resist the state (cf. Acts 4:19; 5:29).
Christís Lordship extends over all things, whether "sacred" or "secular." Thus a believer submits to the governing authorities because they have been "established by God" (13:2). In whatever actions a state is upholding good and punishing evil, Christians have the obligation to support and obey both its laws and officials (13:3-5). Both in showing honor and paying taxes to their governments, Christians should be exemplary citizens (13:6-7). And one should remember that the infamous Nero was Romeís emperor when Paul wrote these instructions.
Today we hear about "culture wars" and wonder what responsibility we have to the times and places of modernity. Paul seems to take a much more positive view of the larger culture than some contemporary Christian writers. He certainly did not regard that culture with idolatrous awe and was unwilling to "sign off on" all its features. But neither was he willing to "write off" all its elements. Any part of a culture that can holds the potential for being brought under what one writer calls the "structuring power of grace" should be examined for their holy potential. By honoring what is wholesome and being salt and light in relation to anything that has been corrupted by sin, Christians are being obedient to the call to overcome evil with good.
A recent survey among college students across the United States revealed that far more of them are concerned "to be very well off financially" than "to develop a meaningful philosophy of life." In 1968, 83 percent of students said they were committed to finding the meaning of life and 41 percent wanted to be wealthy. At the start of the fall semester for 1997, those percentages were practically reversed ó with 75 percent emphasizing financial well-being and only 40 percent wanting a philosophy of life. The survey was sponsored by the American Council on Education and included over 348,000 students at 665 colleges and universities across the United States.3
The founder of the survey, Alexander W. Astin, sought to explain the evident materialism in the responses. His opinion was that television is, at least in part, involved in it. Citing a four-year study of entering freshmen in 1985, he said, "The more TV they watched, the more their materialistic tendencies were strengthened." Maybe. But I fear we are naming symptoms as causes. Television. Movies. Music. They make easy targets for anyone trying to identify the problems of a culture.
The word "materialism" has at least two definitions. It not only refers to a spirit of greed for money and its clout but may also be used to name a world-view with three distinct axioms: (1) the physical universe operating under physical laws is all that exists or has ever existed, (2) life on Planet Earth is the product of purely natural laws, and (3) mind and thought are functions of matter. All this means that there is no ultimate purpose to the world or life within it. When one embraces philosophical materialism, there is no higher purpose for his or her life than to pursue economic materialism. A cosmos without God, truth, or meaning quickly becomes only a place to chase after momentary pleasures.
For most of the twentieth century, American culture has taught its children to reject God and embrace self-fulfillment, forget eternity and live for the moment, dismiss religion as neurosis and approve all things once considered immoral. Now we are reaping the fruit of unbelief. Watching a lot of TV is the least of our problems ó although television often carries the message of both materialisms. Having another generation graduate from college to carry its totally secular leadership into our schools, businesses, government, and churches is truly scary.
Believers concerned about a climate of materialism, immorality, and unbelief can do something about it. We can overcome evil with good in our own time. Live our faith. Guard our integrity. And focus our lifestyle on things more significant than accumulating more "stuff." Who knows? If we model the alternative to what is distressing us, our personal influence could make the difference in lives of the people who are most important to us.
In a Letter to the Editor, as a member of the parent-teacher organization of your childís school, when you have input on your companyís policies, as you carry out your duties as a citizen, teacher, or neighbor ó honor what is holy and teach, defend, and model what is appropriate to someone who has been saved by grace and who is now living by faith. Christians are responsible for doing more about our culture than criticizing it or isolating from it. We are to be Christís living presence in it.
Nothing is outside the Lordship of Christ. And when grace is lived in the obedience of faith, everything changes. A new creation is born. The collection of these new creatures in the dynamic body called Christís church bears witness ó both in its internal life and its impact on the larger culture ó to the truth that Jesus is a living presence in this world. The resurrected Christ is enthroned in heaven yet present with his redeemed people.
Something of a microcosm of what this means may be illustrated in the experience of the late Malcolm Muggeridge. Deeply dissatisfied with the prevailing values of contemporary culture, he began to be possessed by an "abiding sense, ever more overwhelming in its intensity, that there is an alternative, an alternative that was first propounded two thousand years ago near the Sea of Galilee."4 But the theological significance of all that entailed was quite beyond him at that point. The thing that finally convinced him to embrace Christianity was an experience he had in Jerusalem with a group of Christian pilgrims.
. . . [S]eeing a party of Christian pilgrims at one of (the) shrines, their faces bright with faith, their voices, as they sang, so evidently and joyously aware of their Saviorís nearness, I understood that for them the shrine was authentic. Their faith made it so. Similarly, I, too, became aware that there really had been a man, Jesus, who was also God: I was conscious of his presence.5
What is the business of the church in todayís world? It is to make people conscious of the presence of Christ by living as justified, sanctified, consecrated people in the midst of sin. It is to know grace to the fulness of its joy ó so that we can be so totally surrendered to Christ that we are no longer pinched into the worldís mold but are transformed into new creatures. It is to live faith so obediently that we prove that Godís will is "good, pleasing and perfect." In the ever-expanding circles of self, church, community, and culture, Godís grace brings all things under the Lordship of Jesus.
1 As told by Robert M. Rogers in the Rogers Recorder, December 1997, an annual family newsletter from Mr. Rogers, and used here with the authorís permission.
2 The vague comment about "burning coals" on the head of oneís enemy is a quotation from Prov. 15:21-22. Although some interpret this as either an anticipation of Godís eventual punishment of the wicked or a symbol of the shame kind treatment of an enemy generates in his conscience, both these readings seem inconsistent with the text. Citing William Klassen, "Coals of Fire: Sign of Repentance or Revenge?", New Testament Studies 9 (1962-1963), pp. 337ff, several recent commentators (e.g., Murray, Morris, Stott) reference an ancient Egyptian protocol in which a penitent individual would transport live coals on his head as evidence of his true change of heart toward another. Thus the coals here are not punitive but an affirmation of the change of attitude and relationship that has taken place because of sincere love shown in response to an evil deed that would have anticipated an angry, similarly evil response.
3 Ethan Bronner, "College Freshmen Aiming For High Marks in Income," New York Times, 12 January 1998, p. A10.
4 Malcolm Muggeridge, Jesus Rediscovered (Garden City: Doubleday and Company, 1969), p. ix.
5 Muggeridge, Jesus Rediscovered, p. 271.
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